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Historia

Arkeologiska textilier har förts ut ur Peru ända sedan de grävdes ut i början av 1900-talet. Insamlandet av dem var tidigare ett prestigefyllt uppdrag. Detta har lett till att det förutom i Peru finns paracastextilier på konstmuseer och i privata samlingar över hela världen samt på många västerländska etnografiska museer.

HUR KOM TEXTILIERNA TILL GÖTEBORG?

Mellan 1931–1933 skedde en stor illegal export av paracastextilier till museer och privata samlingar runt om i världen. Ett hundratal av dessa fördes till Sverige och donerades till Etnografiska avdelningen på Göteborgs Museum. Idag finns en större kunskap om problematiken med plundrade och illegalt exporterade föremål.

HUR HITTADES TEXTILIERNA?

Under 1900-talets första år började broderade textilier från en okänd peruansk kultur dyka upp i privata samlingar. Textilierna hade hittats av gravplundrare och de liknade inget man tidigare kände till från äldre andinska kulturer. De beskrevs som fantastiska på grund av den avancerade tekniken och den färgrika och spännande värld som broderierna tycktes avbilda. De märkliga fynden väckte sensation och arkeologer började nu leta efter platsen som de kom från. 1925 lyckades den peruanske arkeologen Julio C. Tello övertyga gravplundraren Juan Quintana att leda honom och hans kolleger till platsen. Området han tog dem till låg på Paracashalvön i Peru. Utgrävningarna på Paracashalvön på 1920-talet ledde till att man fann huskomplex och över 100 gravplatser i varierande storlek. De döda hade i 2000 år legat omsvepta i vävda och broderade textilier av bomull och lama ull. Det mest sensationella gravfyndet fick namnet Necrópolis de Wari Kayan vilket betyder ungefär Förfäderstemplets gravplats. Här hittades en gravplats med 429 nedgrävda bylten. De största gravbyltena var 1,5 meter höga och innehöll 400 textilier. Gravbyltena tillhörde en kultur som fick namnet Paracas efter platsen och räknas till ett av de mest spektakulära arkeologiska fynd. Paracastextilierna på Världskulturmuseet tros komma från just denna gravplats. Trots att det gått över 80 år sedan forskare börjat kartlägga Paracaskulturen utifrån fynden på paracashalvön så vet man fortfarande väldigt lite om hur människorna levde och hur deras samhälle såg ut. Dagens forskning visar att området som Paracaskulturen bredde ut sig över, är större än själva halvön där gravarna har hittats. Som mest sträckte sig Paracaskulturen över sex dalgångar längs stillahavskusten.

PARACASKULTURENS KRONOLOGI

Paracaskulturen var det första komplexa samhället vid Perus södra kust. Kulturen utvecklades under ca 900 år. Denna period delas in i en tidig fas som kallas Cavernas (ca 400-100 f.kr). Därefter utvecklas Paracaskulturen till en mer självständig kultur med egna ideologiska och stilistiska yttringar som vi ser i den senare fasen Nekropolis (ca 100 f.kr. till 300 e.kr.) Paracastextiliernai Världskulturmuseets samling är från perioden 100 f.kr. till 300 e.kr.

TEXTILIERNA I MUSEEMILJÖ

Trots sin mer än tvåtusenåriga historia har Paracastextilierna än idag fantastiska och välbevarade färger. Alpackaullen har en naturlig färgskala i grått, vitt, beige, brunt och svart. Man färgade också garnet och eftersom alpackafiber absorberar färg bättre än bomullsfibrer, är de färgade trådarna nästan enbart av ull

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. Men textiliernas många år i museimiljö, utsatta för ljus, syre, variationer i fuktighet och temperatur, har gjort att dem sköra. Sedan samlingen anlände till Etnografiska avdelningen på Göteborgs Museum vid inledningen av 1930-talet har den hanterats och ställts ut i flera olika sammanhang. Den första utställning av föremål ur samlingen öppnade i Ostindiska huset år 1932. Redan året därpå finns noteringar om att nya hyllsystem behöver byggas för att få plats med allt. 1939 renoverades museet och samlingen fick egna utställningsrum. I förberedelserna för utställningen syddes många av textilierna upp på oblekt linne och infärgad bomullsslöja och monterades i glas och ram. Åren gick och 1963 introducerades ett nytt sätt att visa textilierna; ramarna med inglasade textilier hängdes upp på vertikala utdragbara skivor. Men vibrationerna skadade textilierna och 1970 tvingades man stänga utställningen för publik. Istället byggdes 1978 ett montersystem med glasmontrar på trälådor. 1992 flyttade hela museet till nya lokaler i Gårda. Textilierna ställdes nu ut i specialbyggda montrar, anpassade efter föremålens storlek. Och år 2001 flyttades hela samlingen till Världskulturmuseets nya magasin. En luftfjädrad lastbil användes, då det visade sig att bomullsfibrerna var mycket nedbrutna och i dåligt skick. Paracastextilierna behövde få vila från ljus och hantering. Vilan varade i sju år innan textilierna år 2008 åter togs fram för utställning. Arbetet inleddes med en riskanalys, som utvisade vilka föremål som kunde visas och vilka som var alltför sköra för att flyttas och därför borde stanna i föremålsarkiven. Det stod klart att ett visst fiberbortfall var oundvikligt vid en transport och detta fick vägas mot värdet av att visa samlingen för en bredare publik. De utvalda stora Paracastextilierna transporterades därefter vibrationsfritt i planläge och en lyftkran användes för att ta in dem genom ett fönster på Världskulturmuseet. Samlingen var nu utställd i tre år. Men åter i magasinet sågs tecken på ytterligare fiberbortfall och i vissa fall även nya skador – områden där bottenväven brustit, där broderitrådarna är lösa eller fragment lossnat. Transporterna och hanteringen har alltså medfört ytterligare nedbrytning av föremålen trots att den horisontella och ytterligt varsamma transporten mellan föremålsarkiv och museum endast är ett par kilometer lång.